Alcoholic hepatitis Excessive alcohol consumption is a significant cause of hepatitis and is the most common cause of cirrhosis in the U. This ranges in order of severity and reversibility from alcoholic steatosis least severe, most reversible , alcoholic hepatitis , cirrhosis, and liver cancer most severe, least reversible. The industrial toxin carbon tetrachloride and the wild mushroom Amanita phalloides are other known hepatotoxins. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Non-alcoholic hepatitis is within the spectrum of non-alcoholic liver disease NALD , which ranges in severity and reversibility from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis NASH to cirrhosis to liver cancer, similar to the spectrum of alcoholic liver disease. Autoimmune hepatitis Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic disease caused by an abnormal immune response against liver cells. However, all of these diseases can lead to scarring, fibrosis, and cirrhosis of the liver. Ischemic hepatitis Ischemic hepatitis also known as shock liver results from reduced blood flow to the liver as in shock, heart failure, or vascular insufficiency. The condition usually resolves if the underlying cause is treated successfully. Ischemic hepatitis rarely causes permanent liver damage. Neonatal hepatitis Hepatitis can also occur in neonates and is attributable to a variety of causes, some of which are not typically seen in adults.
The incredible MRI scan that reveals the moment a baby’s brain recognises its mother
The use of ultrasound before 10 weeks gestation is examined in a new scientific opinion paper News 13 March Ultrasound is being increasingly used for non-medical reasons, however, in the first 10 weeks of pregnancy it should be performed only when clinically indicated, advises a new Scientific Impact Paper SIP published today by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists RCOG.
SIPs are produced by the Scientific Advisory Committee at the RCOG and are up-to-date reviews of emerging or controversial scientific issues of relevance to obstetrics and gynaecology. Ultrasound is the most widely used medical imaging method during pregnancy and has become central in the management of the problems of early pregnancy, particularly in the management of women after assisted conception, those where miscarriage is feared and those in whom ectopic pregnancy is suspected.
The opinion paper addresses the issues of ultrasound exposure in the first 10 weeks of gestation, known as the embryonic period, in light of the most current evidence and guidance from national and international ultrasound safety committees and organisations. Both medical and non-medical use are considered.
Can you tell the gender at 13 weeks? I went for my 13 week ultrasound and the lady said she was certain it was a boy but I now have people telling me that thats way to early and was I .
Mean Sac Diameter measurement is used to determine gestational age before a Crown Rump length can be clearly measured. The average sac diameter is determined by measuring the length,width and height then dividing by 3. The quantitative maternal serum beta HCG peaks at approximately 10 weeks and then reduces. It will be difficult to see if the mother has a retroverted uterus or fibroids. The GS is an echogenic ring surrounding an anechoic centre.
An ectopic pregnancy will appear the same but it will not be within the endometrial cavity. Gestational sac size should be determined by measuring the mean of three diameters. These differences rarely effect gestational age dating by more than a day or two. The following image is using a transvaginal approach the gestational sac can be seen during week Yolk Sac Only seen. The yolk sac will be visible before a clearly definable embryonic pole.
The very early embryonic heart will be a subtle flicker. This may be measured using M-Mode avoid Doppler in the first trimester due to risks of bioeffects.
Nub theory – can you predict if you’re having a boy or girl?
The tendency for multiple gestations to be delivered earlier than singleton pregnancies should not be interpreted that multiples should be assigned an earlier estimated due date. Review by Mark Curran, M. How accurate is fetal biometry in the assessment of fetal age?. Am J Obstet Gynecol ; Estimating the date of confinement:
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Underestimation of gestational age by conventional crown-rump length growth curves. Reprinted with permission of American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Variations in the measurement of CRL can be attributed to differences in fetal growth patterns. Such differences are related to factors similar to those that influence birth weight curves, including maternal age and parity, prepregnancy maternal weight, geographic location, and population characteristics.
These include incorporation of the yolk sac or lower limbs in the CRL measurement, excessive curling or extension of the fetus, and tangential section of the trunk. The biparietal diameter BPD is one of the most commonly measured parameters in the fetus. Campbell was the first investigator to link fetal BPD to gestational age 20 ; however, since this original report, numerous publications on this subject have appeared in the literature. The BPD is imaged in the transaxial plane of the fetal head at a level depicting thalami in the midline, equidistant from the temporoparietal bones and usually the cavum septum pellucidum anteriorly Fig.
Transaxial image of the fetal head for biparietal diameter and head circumference measurements. Ultrasound image with biparietal diameter measurement between the solid arrows, outer edge to inner edge and fronto-occipital diameter measurement between the open arrows. The head circumference may be calculated using these diameters or measured directly. Diagram of the transaxial ultrasound image of the fetal head at the level of the thalami large arrows , midline falx curved arrow , and cavum septi pellucidi open arrow.
Gestational age assignment is based on the mean BPD; however, a single BPD encompasses a range of ages in which most fetuses of that size are most likely to fall Table 4.
Anatomy scan at 17 weeks?
Many of us chose to have a sonogram of our baby to not only see how well he or she is doing but also to see if we can’t have a peek at whether our baby will be a he or a she. But just how accurate are ultrasounds? Your question How accurate can you be when telling the baby’s gender by ultrasound? The expert answers The person doing your ultrasound is the only person who can accurately answer this question specifically for you.
However, it should be very accurate close to percent.
The dating scan is most accurate as the earlier the scan the more spot on it is. You can tell them your LMP but you may have not ovulated when you thought you did. I was certain that I was 6 weeks (ovulation day 17) but turns out I was 6+4 and ovulated on day
Doppler Ultrasound The doppler shift principle has been used for a long time in fetal heart rate detectors. Further developments in doppler ultrasound technology in recent years have enabled a great expansion in its application in Obstetrics, particularly in the area of assessing and monitoring the well-being of the fetus, its progression in the face of intrauterine growth restriction, and the diagnosis of cardiac malformations.
Doppler ultrasound is presently most widely employed in the detection of fetal cardiac pulsations and pulsations in the various fetal blood vessels. The “Doptone” fetal pulse detector is a commonly used handheld device to detect fetal heartbeat using the same doppler principle. Blood flow characteristics in the fetal blood vessels can be assessed with Doppler ‘flow velocity waveforms’.
Diminished flow, particularly in the diastolic phase of a pulse cycle is associated with compromise in the fetus.
Drop us a Comment You can also comment using Note: If provided, it will not be published publicly. How far along your scan was and how clear the image was could tip the scale the other direction.
Most dating scans occur anywhere between 10 and 13 weeks gestation, so it’ll soon be your turn. There are many reasons why it’s important to have a dating scan between 10 and 13 weeks of pregnancy. Firstly, any earlier than that and there’s really not much to see!
Sorry, something has gone wrong. Your pregnancy will still be counted as 40 weeks so they will take the date of conception and add two weeks to it. Even women who know their lmp, when they ovulated and conceived and the scan backs all this up are still likely to give birth outside of their due date. The scan is supposed to be accurate to within a few days which somehow by the end of pregnancy has grown to an entire month! That’s the crazy work of science for you.
So for example if your due date was 15 May you could give birth two weeks either side of that and not actually be considered early or late. Although most women consider themselves late once they’ve gone over their due date it’s not how medical professionals will view it. Technically the earlier the scan is done the more accurate the due date and even by around 12 weeks it can be out.
Return of The Bump: 13 weeks pregnant and the dating scan
So what’s the science behind it, how do you do it and does it really work? But before you get too excited, not everyone thinks it works What’s the science behind the nub theory? To the untrained eye all nubs look pretty much the same but some experts say that it’s possible to tell the difference between the two sexes. So if you simply. Wait until your week anomaly scan to find out the sex of your baby you’ll need to have a word with him or her first because if she or he does an impression of a wiggly worm at the scan, there’s no chance of working it out.
Otherwise a scan is generally booked at about 7 weeks to confirm pregnancy, exclude ectopic or molar pregnancies, confirm cardiac pulsation and measure the crown-rump length for dating. A second scan is performed at 18 to 20 weeks mainly to look for congenital malformations, when the fetus is large enough for an accurate survey of the fetal.
History of Technology Heroes and Villains – A little light reading Here you will find a brief history of technology. Initially inspired by the development of batteries, it covers technology in general and includes some interesting little known, or long forgotten, facts as well as a few myths about the development of technology, the science behind it, the context in which it occurred and the deeds of the many personalities, eccentrics and charlatans involved.
You may find the Search Engine , the Technology Timeline or the Hall of Fame quicker if you are looking for something or somebody in particular. Scroll down and see what treasures you can discover. Background We think of a battery today as a source of portable power, but it is no exaggeration to say that the battery is one of the most important inventions in the history of mankind.
Volta’s pile was at first a technical curiosity but this new electrochemical phenomenon very quickly opened the door to new branches of both physics and chemistry and a myriad of discoveries, inventions and applications.
My Ultrababy Scans
Some studies are cited as being too small or having too many confounding factors to draw any useful conclusions. It is difficult to know what to believe Today, millions of ultrasound exams have been performed and millions of babies have been exposed during pregnancy. Without dramatic birth defects to stop its use, more subtle biological sequela may go unrecognized for years to come. Reviewers analyze huge numbers of studies and create a meta-analysis of research data about these issues.
The third edition of the book concludes the following about the potential hazards of obstetric ultrasound:
The accuracy is highest when the lab work is done between 10 and 11 weeks into the pregnancy, and we recommend scheduling the nuchal scan between 12 and 13 weeks. As long as the lab test has been done more than a week before, we should be able to provide you with the Down syndrome and trisomy 18 risk calculations at the time of your ultrasound.
What do other people think? I love the weeks indicator on the test. Also their customer care support is excellent, they have very friendly and helpful staff if you need any help. If you’re testing from the day of your expected period, you can test at any time of the day to find out if you’re pregnant. If you’re testing early, and for an accurate Weeks Indicator result, you must use the first urine of the day. Avoid drinking too much liquid before your do the digital pregnancy test.
When ready to test, remove the test stick from the foil wrapper and take off the blue cap. Use the test straightaway. Doing the Test Simply place just the absorbent tip pointing downwards in your urine stream for 5 seconds only. Take care not to get the rest of the digital pregnancy test stick wet.
13 Weeks Pregnant – Everything You Need To Know
May 10, Return of The Bump: At what was originally 13 weeks and 2 days, then skipped swiftly to 13 weeks and 5 days gestation- moving my due date forwards to the 9th November. One good, strong heart beat. Nuchal measurements looking good so far. Bloods taken with no issues. Results to be sent in days if, indeed, there are results to send.
Dec 10 weeks growth, accurate it allows accurate when her bottom two! Turkey’s foreign minister is a relationship, that can be born either side of your pregnancy scan 2d viability scan at 13 week 12 weeks.
Obstetric Pregnancy Obstetric Pregnancy For all Obstetrics scans, no special preparation is needed, although it is best to wear loose clothing that can easily be lifted or removed in order to expose your abdomen. You will lie on your back on an examination couch and the transducer moved back and forth across your stomach in order to gain the best possible image of the fetus. Ultrasound imaging in pregnancy is widely used to evaluate the baby. It can determine if a baby is present, the position of the fetus and if there is a multiple pregnancy.
It can also help to diagnose abnormalities or problems, help determine the age of the pregnancy and subsequent due date as well as showing the position of the placenta in relation to the birth canal. There is also then a routine scan at 20 weeks. Individual circumstances may dictate that more scans may be offered and a breakdown of what you could receive is detailed below. Early viability scan This usually takes place at 6 to 10 weeks of pregnancy.
The scan can confirm the number of babies in the uterus, the embryo can be observed and measured by about five and a half weeks and a heartbeat usually detected by 6 weeks. Scans at this stage in pregnancy are reassuring for women experiencing bleeding, pain or who have had previous miscarriages. Transvaginal scanning may also be used to obtain a better image of the womb. Nuchal translucency scan This is a scan which is usually carried out at weeks and is a method of screening for chromosomal abnormalities without having an invasive test such as an amniocentesis.
Pregnancy Dating Gestational age is usually determined by the date of the woman’s last menstrual period – assuming ovulation occurred on day fourteen of the menstrual cycle.